Resolution 1540 UN Security Council is an essential element of the global security architecture. The document obliged governments to prevent the acquisition, dissemination and use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their means of delivery by non-State actors or terrorists. For this purpose, within the framework of the National Action Plan of the Republic of Tajikistan on the implementation of UNSCR 1540, the sections on practical measures have noted the need to establish centers for the identification of CBRN materials and to conduct training in the detection of this materials using modern detection methods. The main objectives of the establishment of the Identification of non- proliferation of WMD Center are to promote the development of a national export control system and improve the process of non-proliferation and export control policies in order to ensure national and international security. It is necessary to follow the practice model adopted in the EU and US countries. Taking into account this information a Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan established a Regional training center for the prevention of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats under the Agency for Nuclear and Radiation Safety under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan (hereinafter - the Agency). On the basis of the established Regional Training center under the Agency, it will be possible to provide technical assistance to civil servants engaged in licensing issues, customs specialists controlling the movement of goods across the border, as well as exporters involved in various international economic transactions. Experts and institutions dealing with export control issues will be involved, namely high-level experts with practical and research experience in the field of WMD non-proliferation and export control.
The Republic of Tajikistan is located in a very sensitive geopolitical zone, due to its position among major nuclear powers such as the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, India and Pakistan. The situation is worsening by its long external border with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (1344 km) and the militants of the movement "Taliban" and terrorists from "ISIS". The 20th century experienced the Cold War, the arms race, extensive industry as well as the complete neglect of the concepts of environmental protection and sustainable development. As a result of these actions all over the world, including former Soviet states, a large number of CBRN materials was spread, including those that can be used to make weapons of mass destruction. Today CBRN hazardous materials are in use, in storage and in production. Moreover, due to the lack of sound management of wastes, a great quantity of dangerous CBRN materials are in burial places. In addition, in many countries with weak regulatory control over CBRN materials there is a lack of information about their storage. Due to the fact that in production and in storage there is a large amount of CBRN materials, there is a certain risk of leakage, loss of control over them by the user, and the possibility of theft, and subsequently illegal use by individuals who are expecting to find buyers of CBRN materials wishing to damage the environment or create a security risk, is not excluded. This risk can lead to a number of extremely negative effects, such as pollution of ecosystems (forest, river, sea, etc.), contamination of places of work and living of the population, and even the use of CBRN materials for smuggling, sabotage, terrorist and extremist purposes. Moreover, the consequences can lead to enormous financial costs for decontamination and negative psychological impacts on the population. Given the geographical position of the Republic of Tajikistan and the transit through its territory of a huge number of goods, these risks regard the neighboring countries of the Republic of Tajikistan, as well as Europe.
This last aspect is particularly relevant, given the concerns about the interest of terrorist organizations and rogue states to acquire such materials, as well as the terrorist acts that have taken place in Norway, Israel, Russia and Minsk (metro). In particular, the fact that ISIS is getting closer to Central Asia through Afghanistan, raises concerns. Fighting illicit trafficking and cross-border spread of CBRN materials is of particular importance for the Republic of Tajikistan in the context of measures taken by the international community for sustainable development and fight against international terrorism. Employees of the Border Control and Customs Service of the Republic of Tajikistan have stopped several attempts of smuggling and illegal trafficking of CBRN materials. The improvement of the Regional training center on CBRN will contribute to combating illegal cross-border trafficking of CBRN materials, harmonizing control procedures at the border with the international regulations and facilitating the legal cross-border transport of these substances. The state border of the Republic of Tajikistan is a "stop", where it is possible to control the legality of the circulation of CBRN materials and the training of official from the first line of defense plays a major role in this process. Unfortunately, at the present time, services and departments of the first line of defense of the Republic of Tajikistan do not have sufficient capacity to effectively address these challenges. The problem is that the services and agencies are experiencing a serious shortage of qualified personnel for the use of modern equipment to carry out the search and identification of CBRN materials transported across the country’s border. Practically, the current control of the cross-border movements of CBRN materials is only done through the checking of the supporting documentation (way-bill). These approaches do not allow for verifications, sampling and analysis of CBRN materials transported through border checkpoints, which creates a risk of cross-border trafficking of illicit CBRN materials, registered as non-hazardous. On the other hand, in the case of detection (detention) of suspected CBRN materials, due to the lack of necessary knowledge and skills, the decision to return all the suspicious cargo can lead to the slowing down of the trade flow and the restriction of circulation of legal CBRN materials. In addition, in the event transgressors of the border crossing legislation at the external points of entry (in the "green" border) are arrested, the illegally transported CBRN materials require analysis to determine the degree of danger, to prevent environmental pollution, and harm to staff and local people.
The main project goal:
- The creation of additional barriers to WMD non-proliferation and ensure of export control;
- the developing the modern knowledge and skills necessary to ensure safety and security to prevent acts of terrorism;
- the feasibility of developing an educational program for the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540;
- strengthening the infrastructure of the Regional Training Center for the Prevention of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Threats for the training of first line defense Officials and Mobile Rapid Response Teams in Control Authorities.